Adipomastia

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Adipomastia
Gynecomastia 001.jpg
A male with probable comorbid gynecomastia and pseudogynecomastia.
Classification and external resources
Specialty Plastic surgery

Adipomastia, or lipomastia, also known colloquially as fatty breasts,[1] is a condition defined as an excess of skin and adipose tissue in the breasts without true breast glandular tissue.[2][3] It is commonly present in men with obesity, and is particularly apparent in men who have undergone massive weight loss.[4][5] A related/synonymous term is pseudogynecomastia.[6] The condition is different and should be distinguished from gynecomastia ("women's breasts"), which involves true glandular breast development in a male.[6] The two conditions can usually be distinguished easily by palpation to check for the presence of glandular tissue.[5][7] Another difference between the conditions is that breast pain/tenderness does not occur in pseudogynecomastia.[4] Sometimes, gynecomastia and pseudogynecomastia are present together; this is related to the fact that fat tissue expresses aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogen, and estrogen is produced to a disproportionate extent in men with excessive amounts of fat, resulting in simultaneous glandular enlargement.[4][8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Clinical Assistant Professor Brown University Providence Rhode Island Attending Physician Hallette Center for Diabetes Providence Rhode Island Marc J Laufgraben; Marc J. Laufgraben; Geetha Gopalakrishnan (3 June 2013). Tarascon Adult Endocrinology Pocketbook. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-1-4496-4857-2. 
  2. ^ Mark Dennis; William Talbot Bowen; Lucy Cho (31 August 2016). Mechanisms of Clinical Signs - EPub3. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 599–. ISBN 978-0-7295-8561-3. 
  3. ^ William T. O'Donohue; Lorraine T. Benuto; Lauren Woodward Tolle (8 July 2014). Handbook of Adolescent Health Psychology. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 246–. ISBN 978-1-4614-6633-8. 
  4. ^ a b c Z. Hochberg (1 January 2007). Practical Algorithms in Pediatric Endocrinology. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-3-8055-8220-9. 
  5. ^ a b Seth Thaller; Mimis Cohen (28 February 2013). Cosmetic Surgery After Massive Weight Loss. JP Medical Ltd. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-1-907816-28-4. 
  6. ^ a b Nihal Thomas (30 April 2016). Clinical Atlas in Endocrinology & Diabetes: A Case-Based Compendium. JP Medical Ltd. pp. 387–. ISBN 978-93-5152-857-9. 
  7. ^ Eberhard Nieschlag; Hermann Behre (29 June 2013). Andrology: Male Reproductive Health and Dysfunction. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 232–. ISBN 978-3-662-04491-9. 
  8. ^ Michael Steven Kappy; David B. Allen (M.D.); Mitchell E. Geffner (2005). Principles and Practice of Pediatric Endocrinology. Charles C Thomas Publisher. pp. 261–. ISBN 978-0-398-07554-5.