|Classification and external resources|
Fremitus is a vibration transmitted through the body. In common medical usage, it usually refers to assessment of the lungs by either the vibration intensity felt on the chest wall (tactile fremitus) and/or heard by a stethoscope on the chest wall with certain spoken words (vocal fremitus), although there are several other types.
When a person speaks, the vocal cords create vibrations (vocal fremitus) in the tracheobronchial tree and through the lungs and chest wall, where they can be felt (tactile fremitus). This is usually assessed with the healthcare provider placing the flat of their palms on the chest wall and then asking a patient to repeat a diphthong such as "blue balloons" or "toys for tots" (the original diphthong used was the German word Neunundneunzig but the translation to the English 'ninety nine' was not a diphthong and thus not as effective in eliciting fremitus). An increase in tactile fremitus indicates denser or inflamed lung tissue, which can be caused by diseases such as pneumonia. A decrease suggests air or fluid in the pleural spaces or a decrease in lung tissue density, which can be caused by diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma.
Hepatic fremitus is a vibration felt over the person's liver. It is thought to be caused by a severely inflamed and necrotic liver rubbing up against the peritoneum. The name 'Monash sign' has been suggested for this clinical sign, after the Monash Medical Centre in Melbourne, Australia.[non-primary source needed]
Fremitus appears when teeth move. This can be assessed by feeling and looking at teeth when the mouth is opened and closed.
- "fremitus" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- Kacmarek, Robert M.; Stoller, James K.; Heuer, Al (2016-02-05). Egan's Fundamentals of Respiratory Care. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 336. ISBN 9780323393850.
- Nagappan R, Parkin G, Tsui A, Sievert W (2001). "Hepatic fremitus: 'Monash sign'". Intern Med J. 31 (9): 567–8. PMID 11767877. doi:10.1046/j.1445-5994.2001.00145.x.
- Jr, Paul A. Levi; Rudy, Robert J.; Jeong, Y. Natalie; Coleman, Daniel K. (2015-12-29). Non-Surgical Control of Periodontal Diseases: A Comprehensive Handbook. Springer. pp. 213–214. ISBN 9783662466230.