Health in Turkmenistan
In the post-Soviet era, reduced funding has put the health system in poor condition. In 2002 Turkmenistan had 50 hospital beds per 10,000 population, less than half the number in 1996. Overall policy has targeted specialized inpatient facilities to the detriment of basic, outpatient care. Since the late 1990s, many rural facilities have closed, making care available principally in urban areas. President Niyazov’s 2005 proposal to close all hospitals outside Ashgabat intensified this trend. Physicians are poorly trained, modern medical techniques are rarely used, and medications are in short supply. In 2004 Niyazov dismissed 15,000 medical professionals, exacerbating the shortage of personnel. In some cases, professionals have been replaced by military conscripts. Private health care is rare, as the state maintains a near monopoly. Free public health care was abolished in 2004.
The most common causes of death are cardiovascular disease, cancer, and respiratory disease. Major health factors are poor diet, polluted drinking water, and the industrial and agricultural pollutants that are especially concentrated in the northeastern areas near the Amu Darya River and the Aral Sea. The reported occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been less than 0.1 percent. However, sharp increases in drug trafficking through Turkmenistan are likely to increase that figure substantially. Live expectancy is 65.
The sale of tobacco products in the country was banned by president Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedow in January 2016. A fine of 6,900 manats is imposed on any shop selling cigarettes. Atadurd Odmanov, the head of the State Service for Protecting the Security of a Healthy Society, was earlier stripped of the rank of Colonel because of his failure to persuade smokers to quit.
- Turkmenistan country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (February 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Turkmenistan president outlaws all sale of tobacco products, effectively banning smoking altogether". Independent. 16 January 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.