International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention

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The IPA Kiel Convention, held by the International Phonetic Association in 1989 in Kiel, Germany, adopted the first major revision of the International Phonetic Alphabet in over 50 years.

Effective date of changes[edit]

The strong yet conservative changes to the alphabet first appeared in the 1993 alphabet and were slightly tweaked in the 1996 revision.[citation needed]

Suprasegmental consideration[edit]

Suprasegmental is a term used for intonation, stress, and other prosodic aspects of speech that are hard to denote at the segmental level. The IPA tried to address how to best denote these issues at the Kiel Convention, but the problem has not been truly fixed. The 1993 version, however, had a more expanded suprasegmental section.[1]

Computer Representation of Individual Languages[edit]

According to the guidelines originally passed at Kiel, Computer Representation of Individual Languages (CRIL) must have: a digital speech signal, a narrow phonetic or broad phonemic transcription and finally a phonemic citation form. These guidelines were instituted quickly into language software.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Ladefoged, Peter; Roach, Peter (1986). "Revising the International Phonetic Alphabet: A plan". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 16 (1): 22–29. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003078. 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1987). "Proposed revision of the International Phonetic Alphabet: A conference". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 17 (1): 34. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003224. 
  • International Phonetic Association (1988). "The 1989 Kiel Convention". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 60–109. 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1988). "The 1989 Kiel Convention". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 60–61. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003613. 
  • "Coordinators for the 1989 Kiel Convention". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 62–64. 1988. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003625. 
  • Bladon, Anthony (1988). "Editorial note to the coordinators' reports". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 65. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003637Freely accessible. 
  • Abramson, Arthur S. (1988). "1. The principles on which the IPA should be based". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 66–68. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003649. 
  • Nolan, Francis (1988). "2.2 Vowels". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 69–74. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003650. 
  • Bruce, Gösta (1988). "2.3 Suprasegmental categories and 2.4 The symbolization of temporal events". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 75–76. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003662. 
  • Pullum, Geoffrey K. (1988). "4. The form of presentation of the International Phonetic Alphabet". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 77–84. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003674. 
  • Henton, Caroline G. (1988). "5. Individual symbols and diacritics". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 85–94. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003686. 
  • Macmahon, Michael (1988). "6. Past successes and failures of the IPA". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 95–98. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003698. 
  • Esling, John H. (1988). "7.1 Computer coding of IPA symbols and 7.3 Detailed phonetic representation of computer data bases". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 99–106. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003704. 
  • Bernstein, Jared (1988). "9. Recorded illustrations of the IPA". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 107–109. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003716. 
  • Köhler, Oswin; Ladefoged, Peter; Snyman, Jan; Traill, Anthony; Vossen, Rainer (1988). "The symbols for clicks". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 18 (2): 140–142. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003741. 
  • International Phonetic Association (1989). "Report on the 1989 Kiel Convention". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 19 (2): 67–80. doi:10.1017/S0025100300003868. 
  • "The IPA 1989 Kiel Convention Workgroup 9 report: Computer Coding of IPA Symbols and Computer Representation of Individual Languages". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 19 (2): 81–82. 1989. doi:10.1017/S002510030000387X. 
  • International Phonetic Association (1990). "Further report on the 1989 Kiel Convention". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 20 (2): 22–24. doi:10.1017/S0025100300004205.