Pressure of speech
|Other speech disturbance|
|Classification and external resources|
Pressure of speech is a tendency to speak rapidly and frenziedly, as if motivated by an urgency not apparent to the listener. The speech produced, sometimes called pressured speech, is difficult to interrupt.
Such speech may be too fast, erratic, irrelevant, or too tangential for the listener to understand. It is an example of cluttered speech, and often associated with certain mental disorders particularly mania and schizophrenia. It can be unrelenting, loud and without pauses.
Pressure of speech is a classic hallmark of mania and is often seen during manic periods in patients with bipolar disorder. The pace of the speech indicates an underlying thought disorder known as “Flight of ideas” wherein the flowing of ideas and information through one's mind is so fast that it is difficult to follow their train of thought. This is also tied to an inability to focus on one topic or task.
People with schizophrenia, as well as anyone experiencing extreme anxiety, may also exhibit pressure of speech. Pressure of speech usually refers to the improperly verbalized speech which is a feature of hypomanic and manic illness.
Pressure of speech has commonly been observed in people diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Psychostimulants such as cocaine, amphetamines may cause speech resembling pressured speech in individuals with pre-existing psychopathology and produce hypomanic or manic symptoms in general, owing both to the substance's own qualities and the underlying nature of an individual's psyche. In many psychotic disorders, use of certain drugs amplifies certain expressions of symptoms, and stimulant-induced pressured speech is among them.
- Cluttering is a speech disorder that is related to pressure of speech in that the speech of a clutterer sounds improperly verbalized. However, cluttering is a distinct language disorder, whereas pressure of speech is a symptom of mania, anxiety, or schizophrenia. Even though cluttering sounds almost identical to pressure of speech, it differs in that pressure of speech is rooted in anxiety, where cluttering is not.
- Pressure of speech is an instance of tachylalia, or rapid speech. Pressure of speech is also variously related to agitolalia, agitophasia, tachyphasia, and verbomania.
- Circumstantial speech is a communication disorder in which the focus of a conversation drifts, but often comes back to the point. In circumstantiality, unnecessary details and irrelevant remarks cause a delay in getting to the point.
Pressured speech may also lead to the development of a stutter. The person's need or pressure to speak causes them to involuntarily stutter. Therefore, the person's need to express themselves is greater than their ability to vocalise their thoughts.
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- Lesley Stevens; Ian Rodin (23 April 2001). Psychiatry: an illustrated colour text. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-0-443-05703-8. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- Pressure of Speech - General Practice Notebook Archived 2005-02-05 at the Wayback Machine.
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- Einer Boberg (1 January 1993). Neuropsychology of stuttering. University of Alberta. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-88864-239-4. Retrieved 13 December 2010.