# Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems

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**"Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems"** is a paper published in 1949 by Claude Shannon discussing cryptography from the viewpoint of information theory. It is one of the foundational treatments (arguably *the* foundational treatment) of modern cryptography. It is also a proof that all theoretically unbreakable ciphers must have the same requirements as the one-time pad.

Shannon published an earlier version of this research in the classified report *A Mathematical Theory of Cryptography,* Memorandum MM 45-110-02, Sept. 1, 1945, Bell Laboratories.^{[1]}^{[2]} This classified report also precedes the publication of his "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", which appeared in 1948.

## Contents

## See also[edit]

## References[edit]

- Shannon, Claude. "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems",
*Bell System Technical Journal*, vol. 28(**4**), page 656–715, 1949.

## Notes[edit]

**^**Bibliography of Claude Elwood Shannon**^**Shannon, "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems," p. 656. [1]

## External links[edit]

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