Communications in Uganda

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There are a number of systems of communication in Uganda, including a system of telephony, radio and television broadcasts, internet, mail, and several newspapers. The use of phones and the internet in Uganda has rapidly increased in the last few years.

History[edit]

East Africa and Uganda Protectorates 1912 five rupees stamp

1900 to 1970[edit]

The postal service of for the protectorates of British East Africa and Uganda was called East Africa and Uganda Protectorates, and operated from April 1, 1903 to July 22, 1920. From 1948 to 1977, postal service in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda was provided by the East African Posts and Telecommunications Corporation. With the decolonization of Africa, Uganda took over control of its postal system, although until 1961 stamps from the colonial postal system were being issued alongside Uganda's stamps.

1990s to present[edit]

The Uganda Posts and Telecommunications Corporation had a monopoly over Uganda's communications sector until the Uganda Communications Act was enacted in 1997.[1] The act created the Uganda Communications Commission, the current regulator of communications in Uganda.[1]

Telephone[edit]

A payphone is mounted on a bicycle in Kiwanja, Uganda.
A cell phone being charged from a car battery in Kiwanja, Uganda.

As of June 2018, the telephone communications system was described by the CIA factbook as "developed through private partnerships", with "over 1,800 kilometres (1,118 mi) of fiber optics", and 4G network available in most major cities and national parks, and 3G service available in second-tier urban centers. [2] As of 2004, Uganda Telecom Limited (UTL), Celtel and MTN Uganda Limited were the three telecommunications operators licensed by the Uganda Communications Commission.[1]

In 2018, there were 368,243 main telephone lines in use in Uganda, making Uganda one-hundred and eighth in terms of countries having the most main telephone lines. In 2016, there were 22.838 million mobile telephones in use, making Uganda fifty fourth in terms of countries having the most mobile telephones in use.[2] This was an increase from 2006 when there were 108,600 main telephone lines in use in Uganda, and from 2007 when there were 4.195 million mobile telephones in use.[2] By June 2018, the total number of mobile telephone users in Uganda, was 23.6 million, or 57.6% of the 41 million population, according to the Uganda Communications Commission.[3]

As of March 2010, telephone traffic within is carried by wire. Microwave radi relay, and radiotelephone communication stations are used in domestic telecommunications as well, and fixed and mobile cellular systems are used for short range traffic.[2]

As of March 2010, international telephone communication is catered for by an Intelsat and an Inmarsat satellite earth station, along with analog links to Kenya and Tanzania. The international calling code is 256.[2]

Internet[edit]

The top-level domain for Uganda is ".ug".[2]

In 2018 Uganda had 18.149 million Internet users, or 45.9% of the population (52nd in the world). This is up from 2.5 million users in 2008 (64th in the world).[2]

In 2012, Uganda had 36,332 fixed broadband subscriptions (119th in the world) or 0.1% of the population (165th in the world)[4] and 2.5 million wireless broadband subscriptions (58th in the world) or 7.6% of the population (99th in the world).[5]

In 2006, Uganda had 18 Internet service providers. Mobile network operators provide internet services to Ugandans alongside fixed-line internet providers.

Orange Uganda was the first mobile operator to popularize mobile internet services when it joined the market in 2008. With a mixture of affordable USB internet dongles and reliable fast 3G Internet, Orange instantly captured the data market. Orange Uganda was purchased by Africell Uganda in 2014.[6]

MTN Uganda, the largest mobile operator in Uganda later on joined the mobile internet market following decreasing revenues in Voice and SMS services. The carrier currently sells smartphones, USB dongles and Mi-Fis to increase of data usage of its network. Smart Telecom later on joined the market with super low data prices compared to the competition.[7] Vodafone Uganda is the latest entrant in the Telecom market in Uganda.[8]

Fixed-line internet providers have also increased in Uganda. These mainly offer premium dedicated internet services to business customers. Some of the notable ISPs for business include RokeTelecom, Onesolution, Smile Communication, Datanet, Liquid Telecom, Africa Online among others. These offer high speed internet services for enterprise services with speeds ranging from 0.5Mbit/s to 5Mbit/s offering 4G LTE, Wimax, Fibre connectivity solutions.[9]

In December 2015, Google launched its first wi-fi network in Kampala.[10]

Internet censorship and surveillance[edit]

In September 2009 the OpenNet Initiative found little or no evidence of Internet filtering in all four areas (political, social, conflict/security, and Internet tools) for which it tests.[11]

Though Uganda has made great technological strides in recent years, the country still faces a number of challenges in obtaining affordable, reliable Internet bandwidth. This, rather than a formal government-sponsored filtering regime, is the major obstacle to Internet access. Just prior to the presidential elections in February 2006, the Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) blocked the anti-government Web site RadioKatwe in the only internationally reported case of Internet filtering in Uganda to that date.[11]

During the 2016 parliamentary elections, the government ordered the blocking of social media for 72 hours (18-21 February), making services like Twitter, Facebook, and WhatsApp unavailable.[12]

In July 2018, Uganda instituted a tax on "over the top" messaging and voice services, which includes social networks. Users must may a fee of 200 shillings (approx $0.06 USD) daily in order to use these services. The stated purpose of the law is to provide additional government revenue, and to control "gossip" being spread over these platforms. VPN services have also been blocked, after they were used by citizens to circumvent the tax.[13] Amnesty International condemned the tax as being "a clear attempt to undermine the right to freedom of expression".[14][15]

Postal Service[edit]

As of 2004, Uganda Post Limited was the only postal service licensed by the Uganda Communications Commission in Uganda.[1] As of 2010, Uganda Post Limited had changed its name to Posta Uganda.[16]

Radio and television[edit]

The Uganda Broadcasting Corporation is the public broadcasting station. The 2004 Uganda Broadcasting Corporation Act stated that the UBC should be funded by the levying of a television licence fee.[17] Collection of a licence fee set at USh20,000 (around 8.40 or US$10.80) started in 2005.[17] However, collection was subsequently halted by President Yoweri Museveni.[17] There has since been pressure to reinstate the licence fee to maintain UBC's independence.[17]

Newspapers[edit]

Daily newspapers in Uganda include The New Vision, Sunday Vision, The Daily Monitor, The Sunday Monitor, The Red Pepper, The Sunday Pepper, The Uganda Observer, and The East African Business Week. The East African Procurement News is a weekly business newspaper.[18]

Blogs in Uganda[edit]

Blogs are increasingly being used as a medium of communication in Uganda.[19] Affordable data rates, increasing internet penetration and free blogging platforms such as Wordpress and Blogger are making internet users turn to blogging platforms to creatively express themselves, comment on current affairs, inform the public among other reasons.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Kyeyune, H. (21 May 2004). CASE STUDY: UGANDA (Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics Radiocommunications Unit New Radiocommunication Technologies for Information and Communication Technologies in Developing African Countries).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Central Intelligence Agency (29 June 2018). "The World Factbook: Uganda: Communications: Telephone System". Washington, DC: The World Factbook. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  3. ^ Elias Biryabarema, and Jane Merriman (29 June 2018). "Uganda telecom operators to start charging social media tax". Johannesburg: Reuters Africa. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  4. ^ "Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
  5. ^ "Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
  6. ^ Press Release (17 November 2014). "Africell Completes Acquisition of Orange Uganda, Reaches 11 Million Active Subscribers". New York City: PR Newswire Quoting Africell Limited. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  7. ^ Okwii, David (9 November 2014). "Smart Telecom Uganda internet bundles show it's the new Warid for data services". Kampala: Dignited.com. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  8. ^ Odeke, Onyait (18 November 2014). "Vodafone Uganda joins the stiff battle for a slice of the telecom pie". Kampala: Dignited.com. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  9. ^ Okwii, David (12 December 2014). "5 Worthwhile Ugandan Internet Service providers (ISP) for Small business owners". Kampala: Dignited.com. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  10. ^ BBC Staff (4 December 2015). "Google launches wi-fi network in Kampala, Uganda". London: British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  11. ^ a b OpenNet Initiative (30 September 2009). "No Evidence of Government Internet Filtering in All Four Areas of Testing in Uganda". Opennet.net. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  12. ^ Von Kevin Zawacki (January 2017). "Inside An Internet Shutdown (Interview)" (Translated from the Original German). Statusbericht zur Internetgesundheit. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  13. ^ "Telecom companies will block VPNs, says Mutabazi". Dispatch.ug. 2018-07-01. Retrieved 2018-07-04. 
  14. ^ "Anger at Uganda's tax on social media". BBC News. 2018-07-02. Retrieved 2018-07-03. 
  15. ^ "Uganda Just Rolled Out a 5-Cent Daily Tax to Access Social Media". Time. Retrieved 2018-07-04. 
  16. ^ Mugerwa, Yasiin (19 February 2010). "Posta to sack 100 employees: Yasiin Mugerwa". Daily Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  17. ^ a b c d Mufumba, Isaac (7 August 2006). "Uganda: Scribes Call for Reconsideration of TV Fees". Daily Monitor via AllAfrica.com. Kampala. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  18. ^ Online Newspapers (December 2017). "Partial Listing of Online Newspapers in Uganda". Onlinenewspapers.com. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  19. ^ Robert Sebunya. "Uganda's Top 10 Female Bloggers That You Must Follow". Kampala: Techjaja.com. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  20. ^ Ortega, Ian (23 August 2013). "Top Ten Ugandan Bloggers Who Influence The Nation". Kampala: BigEye Uganda. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]