Tooth ankylosis

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Tooth ankylosis
Classification and external resources
Specialty Dentistry
ICD-10 K03.5

Tooth ankylosis is the pathological fusing of cementum or dentine of a tooth root to the alveolar bone[1]. Ankylosis of teeth is uncommon, it more often occurs in deciduous teeth than permanent teeth.[2]

Diagnosis[edit]

Tooth ankylosis can be recognised clinically by the loss of physiological mobility, and a high P note.

It may also be detected radiographically, loss of periodontal ligament space and evidence of replacement resorption. Ankylosis usually initially occurs on the labial and lingual root surfaces making radiographic detection in the early stages difficult.

Early diagnosis allows the practitioner to plan for future complications.

Deciduous (baby) teeth[edit]

Ankylosis of deciduous teeth may rarely occur. The most commonly affected tooth is the mandibular (lower) second deciduous molar. Partial root resorption first occurs and then the tooth fuses to the bone. This prevents normal exfoliation of the deciduous tooth and typically causes impaction of the permanent successor tooth. As growth of the alveolar bone continues and the adjacent permanent teeth erupt, the ankylosed deciduous tooth appears to submerge into the bone, although in reality it has not changed position. Treatment is by extraction of the involved tooth, to prevent malocclusion, periodontal disturbance or dental caries.[2]

Permanent (adult) teeth[edit]

In healthy teeth, the periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts block osteogenic cells within the periodontium by releasing locally acting regulators. This separates the tooth root from alveolar bone [3]. Damage to the PDL disrupts this process resulting bone growth across the periodontal space and fusion with the root. It may occur following dental trauma, especially re-implanted or severely intruded teeth[4][5]. Increasing the extra oral dry time increases the likelihood of ankylosis[6]. The probability also increases with the severity of intrusion. There is no known treatment to arrest the process. Ankylosis itself is not a reason to remove a permanent tooth, however teeth which must be removed for other reasons are made significantly more difficult to remove if they are ankylosed[2]. Ankylosis in growing patients can result in infra occlusion of teeth, this can lead to an aesthetic and functional deficit.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Andersson, L; Blomlof, L; Lindskog, S; Feiglin, B; Hammarstrom, L (1984). "Tooth ankylosis: clinical, radiographic and histological assessments". International journal of Oral Surgery. 13: 423–31. 
  2. ^ a b c Rajendran A; Sundaram S (10 February 2014). Shafer's Textbook of Oral Pathology (7th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences APAC. pp. 63, 528. ISBN 978-81-312-3800-4. 
  3. ^ McCulloch, C, A (1995). "Origins and functions of cells essential for periodontal repair: the role of fibroblasts in tissue homeostasis". Oral Disease. 1: 271–278. 
  4. ^ Barrett, E, J; Kenny, D, J (1997). "Survival of avulsed permanent maxillary incisors in children following delayed replantation". Ended Dent Traumatol. 13: 269–75. 
  5. ^ Humphrey, J, M; Kenny, D, J; Barrett, E, J (2003). "Clinical outcomes for permanent incisor laxations in a paediatric population". Dental Traumatology. 19: 266–73. 
  6. ^ Andreasen, J, O; Borum, M, K; Jacobsen, H, L; Andreasen, F, M (1995). "Replantation of 400 avulsed permanent incisors". Endod Dent Tramatol. 11: 76–89.