The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis. In most cases, translational regulation involves specific RNA secondary structures on the mRNA. An example of regulation at the level of initiation is the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2. An example of regulation at the level of termination is functional translational readthrough of the lactate dehydrogenase gene LDHB. Other common translation regulatory elements include upstream open reading frames, codon optimality, start codon context (Kozak sequence optimality).
Translation in plants is tightly regulated as in animals, however, it is not as well understood as transcriptional regulation. There are several levels of regulation including translation initiation, mRNA turnover and ribosome loading. Recent studies have shown that translation is also under the control of the circadian clock. Like transcription, the translation state of numerous mRNAs changes over the diel cycle (day night period).
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- Malys N, McCarthy JEG (2010). "Translation initiation: variations in the mechanism can be anticipated". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 68 (6): 991–1003. doi:10.1007/s00018-010-0588-z. PMID 21076851.
- Schueren F, Lingner T, George R, Hofhuis J, Gartner J, Thoms S (2014). "Peroxisomal lactate dehydrogenase is generated by translational readthrough in mammals". eLife. 3: e03640. doi:10.7554/eLife.03640. PMC . PMID 25247702.
- Missra, Anamika; Ernest, Ben; Lohoff, Tim; Jia, Qidong; Satterlee, James; Ke, Kenneth; Arnim, Albrecht G. von. "The Circadian Clock Modulates Global Daily Cycles of mRNA Ribosome Loading". The Plant Cell. 27 (9): 2582–2599. doi:10.1105/tpc.15.00546. PMC . PMID 26392078.
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