|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Type of site
|Alexa rank||262 (as of November 2016)|
|Launched||October 24, 2001|
|Written in||C, Perl|
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet created by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States.
- 1 History
- 2 Technical details
- 3 Uses
- 4 Legal status
- 5 Archived content legal issues
- 6 Search engine links
- 7 Censorship and other threats
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet. The service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index".
Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes. It revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can also be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the site's URL into a search box. The intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machine's creators is to archive the entire Internet.
The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine" (pronounced way-back), a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters routinely used the machine to witness, participate in, and, more often than not, alter famous events in history.
Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews (Usenet) bulletin board system, and downloadable software. The information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible. To overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, and create digital archives.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database. When the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley.
Snapshots usually become available more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later; it can take twenty-four months or longer. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded. Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots.
After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. According to Jeff Kaplan of the Internet Archive in November 2010, other sites were still being archived, but more recent captures would become visible only after the next major indexing, an infrequent operation.
As of 2009[update], the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month; the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month. The data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies.
In 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
In March 2011, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "The Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, and will continue to be updated regularly. The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, and no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year".
In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs.
In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries.
|Year||Pages archived (billion)|
Website exclusion policy
Historically, Wayback Machine respected the robots exclusion standard (robots.txt) in determining if a website would be crawled or not; or if already crawled, if its archives would be publicly viewable. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback Machine through the use of robots.txt. It applied robots.txt rules retroactively; if a site blocked the Internet Archive, any previously archived pages from the domain were immediately rendered unavailable as well. In addition the Internet Archive stated, "Sometimes a website owner will contact us directly and ask us to stop crawling or archiving a site. We comply with these requests." In addition, the website says: "The Internet Archive is not interested in preserving or offering access to Web sites or other Internet documents of persons who do not want their materials in the collection."
Oakland Archive Policy
Wayback's retroactive exclusion policy is based in part upon Recommendations for Managing Removal Requests And Preserving Archival Integrity published by the School of Information Management and Systems at University of California, Berkeley in 2002, which gives a website owner the right block assess to the site's archives.  Wayback has complied with this policy to help avoid expensive litigation.
The Wayback retroactive exclusion policy began to relax in 2017, when it stopped honoring robots.txt on U.S. government and military web sites for both crawling and displaying web pages. As of April 2017, Wayback is exploring ignoring robots.txt more broadly, not just for U.S. government websites.
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2017)|
The site is frequently used by journalists and citizens to review dead websites, dated news reports or changes to website contents. Its content has been used to hold politicians accountable and expose battlefield lies.
In 2014 an archived social media page of separatist rebel leader in Ukraine Igor Girkin showed him boasting about his troops having shot down a suspected Ukrainian military airplane before it became known that the plane actually was a civilian Malaysian Airlines jet after which he deleted the post and blamed Ukraine's military.
In 2017 the March for Science originated from a discussion on reddit that indicated someone had visited Archive.org and discovered that all references to climate change had been deleted from the White House website. In response, a user commented, "There needs to be a Scientists' March on Washington".
In legal evidence
Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc.
In a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc., defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots.txt file on its website that was causing the Wayback Machine to retroactively remove access to previous versions of pages it had archived from Netbula's site, pages that Chordiant believed would support its case.
Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbula's website and that they should have subpoenaed Internet Archive for the pages directly. An employee of Internet Archive filed a sworn statement supporting Chordiant's motion, however, stating that it could not produce the web pages by any other means "without considerable burden, expense and disruption to its operations."
Magistrate Judge Howard Lloyd in the Northern District of California, San Jose Division, rejected Netbula's arguments and ordered them to disable the robots.txt blockage temporarily in order to allow Chordiant to retrieve the archived pages that they sought.
In an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No. 02 C 3293, 65 Fed. R. Evid. Serv. 673 (N.D. Ill. Oct. 15, 2004), a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, perhaps for the first time. Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network. Prior to the trial proceedings, EchoStar indicated that it intended to offer Wayback Machine snapshots as proof of the past content of Telewizja Polska's website. Telewizja Polska brought a motion in limine to suppress the snapshots on the grounds of hearsay and unauthenticated source, but Magistrate Judge Arlander Keys rejected Telewizja Polska's assertion of hearsay and denied TVP's motion in limine to exclude the evidence at trial. At the trial, however, district Court Judge Ronald Guzman, the trial judge, overruled Magistrate Keys' findings, and held that neither the affidavit of the Internet Archive employee nor the underlying pages (i.e., the Telewizja Polska website) were admissible as evidence. Judge Guzman reasoned that the employee's affidavit contained both hearsay and inconclusive supporting statements, and the purported web page printouts were not self-authenticating.
Provided some additional requirements are met (e.g., providing an authoritative statement of the archivist), the United States patent office and the European Patent Office will accept date stamps from the Internet Archive as evidence of when a given Web page was accessible to the public. These dates are used to determine if a Web page is available as prior art for instance in examining a patent application.
Limitations of utility
There are technical limitations to archiving a website, and as a consequence, it is possible for opposing parties in litigation to misuse the results provided by website archives. This problem can be exacerbated by the practice of submitting screen shots of web pages in complaints, answers, or expert witness reports, when the underlying links are not exposed and therefore, can contain errors. For example, archives such as the Wayback Machine do not fill out forms and therefore, do not include the contents of non-RESTful e-commerce databases in their archives.
In Europe the Wayback Machine could be interpreted as violating copyright laws. Only the content creator can decide where their content is published or duplicated, so the Archive would have to delete pages from its system upon request of the creator. The exclusion policies for the Wayback Machine may be found in the FAQ section of the site.
Archived content legal issues
A number of cases have been brought against the Internet Archive specifically for its Wayback Machine archiving efforts.
In late 2002, the Internet Archive removed various sites that were critical of Scientology from the Wayback Machine. An error message stated that this was in response to a "request by the site owner". Later, it was clarified that lawyers from the Church of Scientology had demanded the removal and that the site owners did not want their material removed.
Healthcare Advocates, Inc.
In 2003, Harding Earley Follmer & Frailey defended a client from a trademark dispute using the Archive's Wayback Machine. The attorneys were able to demonstrate that the claims made by the plaintiff were invalid, based on the content of their website from several years prior. The plaintiff, Healthcare Advocates, then amended their complaint to include the Internet Archive, accusing the organization of copyright infringement as well as violations of the DMCA and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Healthcare Advocates claimed that, since they had installed a robots.txt file on their website, even if after the initial lawsuit was filed, the Archive should have removed all previous copies of the plaintiff website from the Wayback Machine, however, some material continued to be publicly visible on Wayback. The lawsuit was settled out of court, after Wayback fixed the problem.
In December 2005, activist Suzanne Shell filed suit demanding Internet Archive pay her US $100,000 for archiving her website profane-justice.org between 1999 and 2004. Internet Archive filed a declaratory judgment action in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on January 20, 2006, seeking a judicial determination that Internet Archive did not violate Shell's copyright. Shell responded and brought a countersuit against Internet Archive for archiving her site, which she alleges is in violation of her terms of service. On February 13, 2007, a judge for the United States District Court for the District of Colorado dismissed all counterclaims except breach of contract. The Internet Archive did not move to dismiss copyright infringement claims Shell asserted arising out of its copying activities, which would also go forward.
On April 25, 2007, Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell jointly announced the settlement of their lawsuit. The Internet Archive said it "...has no interest in including materials in the Wayback Machine of persons who do not wish to have their Web content archived. We recognize that Ms. Shell has a valid and enforceable copyright in her Web site and we regret that the inclusion of her Web site in the Wayback Machine resulted in this litigation." Shell said, "I respect the historical value of Internet Archive's goal. I never intended to interfere with that goal nor cause it any harm."
In 2013–16, a pornographic actor tried to remove archived images of himself from the WayBack Machine's archive, first by sending multiple DMCA requests to the archive, and then by appealing to the Federal Court of Canada.
||This section needs to be updated. (May 2017)|
Censorship and other threats
Alison Macrina, director of the Library Freedom Project, notes that "while librarians deeply value individual privacy, we also strongly oppose censorship".
There are known rare cases where online access to content which "for nothing" has put people in danger was disabled.
Other threats include natural disasters, destruction (remote or physical), manipulation of the archive's contents (see also: cyberattack, backup), problematic copyright laws and surveillance of the site's users.
Kevin Vaughan suspects that in the long-term of multiple generations "next to nothing" will survive in a useful way besides "if we have continuity in our technological civilization" by which "a lot of the bare data will remain findable and searchable".
Some find the Internet Archive, which describes itself to be built for the long-term,. to be working furiously to capture data before it disappears without any long-term infrastructure to speak of.[copyright violation?]
- Collective memory
- Deep web
- The Memory Hole
- Library Genesis
- Web archiving
- "Archive.org Site Info". Alexa Internet. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- "WayBackMachine.org WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info – DomainTools". WHOIS. Retrieved 2016-03-13.
- "InternetArchive.org WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info – DomainTools". WHOIS. Retrieved 2016-03-13.
- "Internet Archive launches WayBack Machine". Online Burma Library. 2001-10-25. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24. Retrieved 2016-03-13.
- "The Internet Archive: Building an 'Internet Library'". Internet Archive. 2001-11-30. Archived from the original on November 30, 2001. Retrieved 2016-03-14.
- Green, Heather (February 28, 2002). "A Library as Big as the World". BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011.
- TONG, JUDY (September 8, 2002). "RESPONSIBLE PARTY – BREWSTER KAHLE; A Library Of the Web, On the Web". New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 February 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Kahle, Brewster. "Archiving the Internet". Scientific American – March 1997 Issue. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Cook, John (November 1, 2001). "Web site takes you way back in Internet history". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Internet Archive's Wayback Machine". SEJ. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-02-26.
- "Internet Archive FAQ". Archive.org. Archived from the original on 2014-04-17. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
- Archive.org forum thread with response by Jeff Kaplan Archived 2013-10-23 at the Wayback Machine., last update November 07, 2010
- Mearian, Lucas (March 19, 2009). "Internet Archive to unveil massive Wayback Machine data center". Computerworld.com. Archived from the original on 2009-03-23. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
- Kanellos, Michael (July 29, 2005). "Big storage on the cheap". CNET News.com. Archived from the original on 2007-04-03. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- "Internet Archive and Sun Microsystems Create Living History of the Internet". Sun Microsystems. March 25, 2009. Archived from the original on March 26, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- "Updated Wayback Machine in Beta Testing". Archive.org. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Beta Wayback Machine, in forum". Archive.org. Archived from the original on 2014-04-17. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
- "Wayback Machine: Now with 240,000,000,000 URLs | Internet Archive Blogs". Blog.archive.org. 2013-01-09. Archived from the original on 2014-04-14. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
- Rossi, Alexis (2013-10-25). "Fixing Broken Links on the Internet". archive.org. San Francisco, CA, US: Collections Team, the Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2014-11-07. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
We have added the ability to archive a page instantly and get back a permanent URL for that page in the Wayback Machine. This service allows anyone – wikipedia editors, scholars, legal professionals, students, or home cooks like me – to create a stable URL to cite, share or bookmark any information they want to still have access to in the future.
- The VirusTotal Team (2015-03-25). "220.127.116.11 IP address information". virustotal.com. Dublin 2, Ireland: VirusTotal. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
2015-03-25: Latest URLs hosted in this IP address detected by at least one URL scanner or malicious URL dataset. ... 2/62 2015-03-25 16:14:12 [complete URL redacted]/Renegotiating_TLS.pdf ... 1/62 2015-03-25 04:46:34 [complete URL redacted]/CBLightSetup.exe
- Advisory provided by Google (2015-03-25). "Safe Browsing Diagnostic page for archive.org". google.com/safebrowsing. Mountain View, CA, US: Google. Archived from the original on 2015-04-06. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
2015-03-25: Part of this site was listed for suspicious activity 138 time(s) over the past 90 days. ... What happened when Google visited this site? ... Of the 42410 pages we tested on the site over the past 90 days, 450 page(s) resulted in malicious software being downloaded and installed without user consent. The last time Google visited this site was on 2015-03-25, and the last time suspicious content was found on this site was on 2015-03-25. ... Malicious software includes 169 trojan(s), 126 virus, 43 backdoor(s).
- "Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on 2009-10-21. Retrieved 2015-01-17.
- "Can the manipulation of big data change the way the world thinks? | The National". Archived from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Archive.org Site Info". Alexa Internet. Archived from the original on 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- "Archive.org Site Overview". Alexa Internet. Archived from the original on 2015-04-09. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2005-12-31. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2006-12-28. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2007-12-28. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2008-12-24. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2009-12-20. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2010-12-30. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2011-08-30. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2012-12-31. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- michelle (2014-05-09). "Wayback Machine Hits 400,000,000,000!". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2015-02-13. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
- Some sites are not available because of Robots.txt or other exclusions Archived 2011-04-15 at the Wayback Machine..
- How can I remove my site's pages from the Wayback Machine? Archived 2014-04-17 at the Wayback Machine..
- "Recommendations for Managing Removal Requests And Preserving Archival Integrity". University of California. December 14, 2002. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
- "Retroactive robots.txt removal of past crawls AKA Oakland Archive Policy". Internet Archive. July 7, 2014. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
- Mark Graham (April 17, 2017). "Robots.txt meant for search engines don’t work well for web archives". Internet Archive Blogs. Archived from the original on April 17, 2017. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Archivierung des Internets: Internet Archive ignoriert künftig robots.txt" (in German). heise online. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Suchmaschinen: Internet Archive will künftig Robots.txt-Einträge ignorieren - Golem.de" (in German). Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Internet Archive will ignore robots.txt files to keep historical record accurate". Digital Trends. 24 April 2017. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Wayback Machine Won’t Censor Archive for Taste, Director Says After Olympics Article Scrubbed". Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "What the Web Said Yesterday". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 25 January 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "The March for Science began with this person’s ‘throwaway line’ on Reddit". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "Are scientists going to march on Washington?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 31, 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Foley, Katherine Ellen. "The global March for Science started with a single Reddit thread". Quartz. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- LLoyd, Howard (October 2009). "Order to Disable Robots.txt" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- Cortes, Antonio (October 2009). "Motion Opposing Removal of Robots.txt". Archived from the original on 2010-10-27. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- Gelman, Lauren (November 17, 2004). "Internet Archive's Web Page Snapshots Held Admissible as Evidence". Packets. 2 (3). Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- Howell, Beryl A. (February 2006). "Proving Web History: How to use the Internet Archive" (PDF). Journal of Internet Law: 3–9. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- Wynn W. Coggins (Fall 2002). "Prior Art in the Field of Business Method Patents – When is an Electronic Document a Printed Publication for Prior Art Purposes?". USPTO. Archived from the original on 2012-09-21.
- "Debunking the Wayback Machine". Archived from the original on 29 June 2010.
- German lawyer about the Wayback Machine in a law paper Archived 2009-08-23 at the Wayback Machine., Journal of Internet Law: JurPC.
- Bowman, Lisa M (September 24, 2002). "Net archive silences Scientology critic". CNET News.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- Jeff (September 23, 2002). "exclusions from the Wayback Machine" (Blog). Wayback Machine Forum. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-04. Author and Date indicate initiation of forum thread.
- Miller, Ernest. "Sherman, Set the Wayback Machine for Scientology". LawMeme. Yale Law School. Archived from the original (Blog) on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- Dye, Jessica (2005). "Website Sued for Controversial Trip into Internet Past". EContent. 28. (11): 8–9.
- Bangeman, Eric (August 31, 2006). "Internet Archive Settles Suit Over Wayback Machine". Ars technica. Archived from the original on November 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- Internet Archive v. Shell, 505 F.Supp.2d 755 at justia.com, 1:2006cv01726 (Colorado District Court 2006-08-31) (“'April 25, 2007 Settlement agreement announced.' Filing 65, 2007-04-30: '...therefore ORDERED that this matter shall be DISMISSED WITH PREJUDICE...'”).
- Babcock, Lewis T., Chief Judge (2007-02-13). "Internet Archive v. Shell Civil Action No. 06cv01726LTBCBS" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-01-25. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
1) Internet Archive's motion to dismiss Shell's counterclaim for conversion and civil theft (Second Cause of Action) is GRANTED, 2) Internet Archive's motion to dismiss Shell's counterclaim for breach of contract (Third Cause of Action) is DENIED; 3) Internet Archive's motion to dismiss Shell's counterclaim for Racketeering under RICO and COCCA (Fourth Cause of Action) is GRANTED.
- Claburn, Thomas (2007-03-16). "Colorado Woman Sues To Hold Web Crawlers To Contracts". New York, NY, US: InformationWeek, UBM Tech, UBM LLC. Archived from the original on 2014-09-04. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
Computers can enter into contracts on behalf of people. The Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA) says that a 'contract may be formed by the interaction of electronic agents of the parties, even if no individual was aware of or reviewed the electronic agents' actions or the resulting terms and agreements.'
- Samson, Martin H., Phillips Nizer LLP (2007). "Internet Archive v. Suzanne Shell". internetlibrary.com. Internet Library of Law and Court Decisions. Archived from the original on 2014-08-03. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
More importantly, held the court, Internet Archive's mere copying of Shell's site, and display thereof in its database, did not constitute the requisite exercise of dominion and control over defendant's property. Importantly, noted the court, the defendant at all times owned and operated her own site. Said the Court: 'Shell has failed to allege facts showing that Internet Archive exercised dominion or control over her website, since Shell's complaint states explicitly that she continued to own and operate the website while it was archived on the Wayback machine. Shell identifies no authority supporting the notion that copying documents is by itself enough of a deprivation of use to support conversion. Conversely, numerous circuits have determined that it is not.'
- brewster (2007-04-25). "Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell Settle Lawsuit". archive.org. Denver, CO, USA: Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
Both parties sincerely regret any turmoil that the lawsuit may have caused for the other. Neither Internet Archive nor Ms. Shell condones any conduct which may have caused harm to either party arising out of the public attention to this lawsuit. The parties have not engaged in such conduct and request that the public response to the amicable resolution of this litigation be consistent with their wishes that no further harm or turmoil be caused to either party.
- "Copyright Implications Of A "Right To Be Forgotten"? Or How To Take-Down The Internet Archive. - Intellectual Property - Canada".
- Davydiuk v. Internet Archive Canada, 2014 FC 944
- Davydiuk v. Internet Archive Canada and Internet Archive, 2016 FC 1313 (CanLII)
- Gary Price (September 18, 2005). "Yahoo Cache Now Offers Direct Links to Wayback Machine". Search Engine Watch. Archived from the original on November 29, 2011.
- Conger, Kate. "Backing up the history of the internet in Canada to save it from Trump". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Where to find what's disappeared online, and a whole lot more: the Internet Archive". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Chirgwin, Richard. "There's no Wayback in Russia: Putin blocks Archive.org". Archived from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Russia won’t go Wayback, blocks the Internet Archive". Digital Trends. 26 June 2015. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Help Us Keep the Archive Free, Accessible, and Reader Private | Internet Archive Blogs". Archived from the original on 21 May 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Internet Archive: Proposed Changes To DMCA Would Make Us "Censor The Web"". Consumerist. 7 June 2016. Archived from the original on 11 November 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Herb, Ulrich. "Die Trump-Angst grassiert" (in German). heise online. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- LaFrance, Adrienne. "The Internet's Dark Ages". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "The Entire Internet Will Be Archived In Canada to Protect It From Trump". Motherboard. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- LaFrance, Adrienne. "The Human Fear of Total Knowledge". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2017.